Automotive and industrial lubricants
What is Lubricant?
Blood maintain the whole body,keep running all moving parts and show the status of full body.Just like this,lubricant keep balance of speed,temperature ,pressure or other important parameters of the engine or any system.Generally Lubricants or lube oil is composition of base oil & additives,where maximum part is base oil and other portion is additives for enhancement of lubricants.
Shortly, Lubricant or lube oil is a viscous fluid substance obtained from petroleum and used for lubrication to reduce heat or friction
Basic Function of Lube Oil:
- Reduce Heat.
- Reduce Function.
- Improve moving functions.
- Protect Engine metals from wear.
- In some cases it also acts as cleaner also.
- Makes the piston gas tight.
- Damps down the vibration of the engine.
Basic Properties of Lube Oil:
- SAE Grade
- API Grade
- TBN & TAN
- Flash & Pour Point
Internal resistance of moving is the viscosity of the lubricant or lube oil. Generally in case of lubricant viscosity is measured by a unit less parameter named viscosity index. Actually it is the major oil life indicator of lubricants.
Viscosity index is nothing but a unit less measuring system of change of viscosity with temperature change. To get clear vision about it have to know first, what is viscosity? Actually it is internal resistance of fluid by which we can understand either the fluid move towards fast or slow, or how much fast or how much slow. On the other hand it is force of fluid with works against the movement of the substance. For easy understanding we can say that, when we pouring two or more fluid from a bottle towards down, then which fluid down faster that is low viscous and slow mover fluid is high viscous.In some cases viscosity index of the lube oil can be improved by adding different types of additives and these additives called VI improver. Viscosity Index can improve the productivity of lube oil in different ways.Because viscosity index is the key factor of lubricants stability in engine.In time of internal combustion of engine when lubricant works for the heat & friction reduce it losses viscosity but in case of high viscosity oil this losing rate is low.Viscosity Index can be found by a easy formula:
Where L is kinematic viscosity at 0°C,U at 40 °C and H at 100°C.
SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers.Generally lubricant’s viscosity is expressed by SAE Grade such as SAE 40 or 15W40.
API : American Petroleum Institute which gives the lube oil certification.
TBN : Total Base number
TAN:Total Acid number.
Flash Point: Temperature point in which oil started to sparking.
Pour point : Temperature point in which oil started to covert into ice.
What is the necessity of use Lubricants in Engine?
- Cooling, reduce friction & cleaning of engine, lubricant is must for any types of running engine.
What is the best Lubricant for Engine?
- For using best lubricant for any engine, must need to follow the OEM guideline of that engine.
What is Viscosity Grade?
- It indicates how much thicker the lube oil or lubricant i.e. ISO VG 46 is thicker than ISO VG 32 Lubricant. Or VG (viscosity grade) 46 Oil has more resistance to flow than VG 32 Oil. Like this 15W40 is high viscous than 15W30. And also SAE 50 is high viscous than SAE 30 Lubricant.
What does it mean by 15W40?
- 15W40 has two part 15w & 40, here W for weather condition. It indicates that,in which temperature range the lubricant will work perfectly. And next part (40) indicates the viscosity of the lube oil.
What is API?
- API means American Petroleum Institute, Which indicates the standard of Lube oil. E.G. Engine Oil 5W30 which have API SL is high standard than Engine Oil 5W30 API SJ. Here Standard is the combination of Performance, OEM Approval, that means high standard means high approval, high performance etc. And high standard API Contains alphabetical higher sequence letter after S or C. Suppose SL is high than SJ, again SN is higher than SL. On the Other hand CI is higher than CD or CE API.